Supplied as an easily-applied sheet, It can be cold-applied at temperatures as low as 15&176;C, and can be placed on a variety of concrete surfaces. &0183;&32;Great read! Synthetic underlayment is a newer innovation that is taking over the metal roofing industry as a better, more advanced replacement for felt underlayment. Membrane known as "Bitchathane". Bitchathane: First Tiles: Starting West Side: West Side Progress: Starting North Side: North Side Progress: Roof Finished! Don't forget to include roof overhangs. Good concrete attains high compressive strength and resistance against most natural attacks though not against de-icing saltwater, or CO2 and SO2 in polluted air. Schnelle Lieferung, auch auf Rechnung - lehmanns.
FortiFlash is engineered to deliver lasting protection against water intrusion in the most demanding environmental conditions. Caution is necessary with sandstones, as only siliceous sandstone is durable. Because it is difficult to predict how long waterproofing products will last, tamko offers a limited warranty that includes a binding arbitration clause and other terms and conditions which are incorporated herein by reference. Peel & Seal roll roofing is 33ft. This protective rust has a warm sepia-toned color which looks fine in open country. See more videos for Bitchathane.
Part 1 looks at a history of complaints by. MFM Peel & Seal is the original, patented self-stick roll roofing. Ghost Writers von Keith Taylor, Laura Kasischke (ISBNbestellen.
LEED Letter. Concrete is a much more durable roofing material with a life expectancy of 35-50 years. These materials have different qualities of strength, workability, durability and resistance against corrosion. Tape the flap temporarily out of the way. TIP: To make this really water tight, use a wide piece of ice and water barrier (called bitchathane) behind both the ledger board and up under the siding. Check out the most common roofing materials and their lifespans.
Substructure Waterproofing - Ancillaries Grace Protection 03 Bituminous board for permanent protection of Grace waterproof membrane. These cookies are necessary for the services and viewing experience of this site, and cannot be opted out here. A second method of resisting tensile forces in concrete structures is by pre-stressing.
Hello, Sign in. Surfaces can also be enlivened by bright or dark joint-filling. It is also ideally suited for flashing non-roofing horizontal conditions such as pot shelves, parapets, sill pans and recessed windows.
Waterproofing products begin to age as soon as they are exposed to nature, and buildings experience aging factors differently. This is not a book review. These roofs have endured for around 50 years and show no signs of stopping, but no average has been determined because the system is so young.
If you have a house wrap make sure the bichathane is behind it also. Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. I have been working on the new shop for awhile now. For many homeowners who are looking to install a metal roof on their house, cost is a huge factor. Its strong adhesion makes it a perfect choice for sealing. The resulting collection is a satisfying mix of tales by some of the state's most well-known and award-winning writers. Rolled roofing has become more and more popular in recent years.
The choice of colors is an important feature for achieving good appearance. Specification Document 6. Bituthene membranes are formulated to be applied and perform under a variety of temperature conditions. It forms an ideal seal keeping out moisture and wind driven rain, thereby preventing mold, and saving energy by stopping air leaks and eliminating drafts. The high strengths of steel allow small cross-sections of beams or girders and therefore a low dead load of the structure. This range is 5 years longer than metal, but concrete is reliable right up to the end of its life.
Many building owners purchase a new roofing system for the building thinking the money they save on energy costs or on low maintenance will allow them to break even on the purchase price. Synthetic underlayment is a roofing accessory created by weaving/spinning together polypropylene or polyethylene and a polymer to form an all-over protective barrier to put between the roofing material and the roof deck. Use Bituthene Mastic is designed to seal terminations, edges of patches and overlaps in detail areas. DeThe Bituthene Systemsq. Up by Friday.
Grace Construction Products GRACE ULTRA™ Self-adhered architectural roof and façade underlayment for applications requiring superior protection. 15 year Eternabond Warranty. They can be expected to last 25-30 years. The name is universal; the products are not. I tried to reread that book a few years ago and couldn’t.
&0183;&32;In a series of stories, Berkeleyside examines the building where six people died and seven were seriously injured Tuesday after a balcony collapsed. For Ghost Writers: Us Haunting Them editors Keith Taylor and Laura Kasischke asked twelve celebrated Michigan writers to submit new stories on one subject: ghosts. Aluminum was occasionally used for bridges and the same form was used as for steel girders. Stop problems with the right waterproofing system.
Steel must be protected against corrosion and this is usually done by applying a protective paint to the bare steel surface. Bituthene 3000 is a high performance, cold applied, flexible, preformed waterproof membrane combining a special high performance cross-laminated, HDPE carrier film with a unique self-adhesive rubber bitumen compound. Discount Waterproofing Products, Marine Coatings, Basement Waterproofing, Foundation Waterproofing, Below Grade Waterproofing, Roof Waterproofing, Underwater and Pool Repair Products, Waterproofing Membranes and more. The VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) content is 200 g/L. Preface: Grim reader Ghost anecdote / Laura Kasischke Not even lions and tigers / Steve Amick Thin air / Elizabeth Kostova Backseat driver / James Hynes Pier Road / Nicholas Delbanco Bones on Bois Blanc / Laura Hulthen Thomas Bitchathane / Anne-Marie Oomen Estate sale / Kelly Fordon Making bakes / Lolita Hernandez The devil in Cross Village / Eileen Pollack The man at the edge / Keith Taylor.
It is a good. Maintenance is a burden because of the re-coatings required. When compared to shingles, rolled roofing is far cheaper and much easier to apply. Project MUSE Mission.
New England Roofing offers a 6-Part Roofing System:. Flat roofs with no overhang or gutter system create more opportunity for water to damage the exterior walls of the home, too. It is therefore necessary to have a profound knowledge of the behavior of these special steels before using them. 2806 NE 65th Ave, UNIT D Vancouver, com Washington LIC WARNERC066OR. Unfortunately, stone bridges have become very expensive. One of the big advantages to rubber is the cost. It&39;s the stuff that Norm Abrams and Tom Silva are always raving about on This Old House TV program.
&0183;&32;Mobile homes with flat roofs aren't as popular as they once were. Shop waterproofers & sealers and a variety of paint products online at Lowes. Their effectiveness has been proven time and again in countless projects.
Ice & Water shield/ Bitchathane: A self-adhering, waterproofing shingle underlayment designed to protect against water infiltration due to ice dams or wind driven rain. A rubber roof, known in the roofing business as an EPDM (ethylene propylene diene terpolymer) roof, has a lot of advantages and only a few disadvantages. Self-adhered membrane consisting of a SBS rubberized asphalt.
High wind tolerance 7. Underlayment for Vinyl Planks, Laminate and Engineered Hardwood Floors. · BITUTHENE® 4000 surface conditioner is water-based primer that is specifically formulated to promote adhesion by binding dust and concrete efflorescence to help provide a suitable surface for the BITUTHENE® 4000 waterproofing membrane.
It is specifically formulated to bind site dust and concrete efflorescence, thereby providing a suitable surface for the Bituthene System 4000 Waterproofing Membrane. This could include periodic painting to avoid rust, replacement of defective or damaged panels, and re-fastening the roof if any fasteners become dislodged during roof movement. Proper construction techniques for waterproofing foundations and basements can prevent costly damage. Some is torch on roofing; other stuff is peel and stick "ice and water" membranes. Description Bituthene®Mastic is a rubberized, asphalt-based mastic. Ghost Writers: Us Haunting Them, Contemporary Michigan Literature: Oomen, Author Anne-Marie, Pollack, Eileen, Kostova, Elizabeth, Schmuhl, Elizabeth, Hynes, James. Posted by Dust'n Lint at 8:13 AM No comments: Monday, Septem.
This proprietary resin formula is used in the walk and deckside surfaces to create a slip resistant surface. Aluminum profiles are popular for bridge parapets because they need no protective paint. 1) Measure your house foundation length / width, and enter your dimensions into "roof size" fields. Family with 15 infections makes COVID-19 PSA. All the words.
Down Sizing Shops III Last Friday I had some help from my son Tom and my friend Jim. Robert, the pan has a very odd shape. MFM Peel & Seal is the original, patented self-stick roll roofing. Some of the pieces are true stories written by. Visit the post for more.
The great old bridges of the Etruscans, the Romans, the Fratres Pontifices of the middle ages (since about 1100) and of later master builders were built with stone masonry. Bituthene System 4000 Waterproofing Membrane & Surface Conditioner is a product in the Self-Adhering Sheet Waterproofing category. Nor does fatigue strength rise in proportion to the tensile strength.
A multi-year exploration of the country in a pick-up truck and travel trailer in search of new sights, new people and new places to contra dance. A proven performer for high performance structural glazing and weathersealing. In this way smooth looking trusses arise without the &92;&92;"unrest&92;&92;" which occurs by joining two or four profiles of rolled section with lattice or plates. &0183;&32;You remember Catcher in the Rye, I’m sure. Our experts are capable of handling anything from a simple concrete leveling to a complex foundation repair.
The other option is calling the roofer for torch down or hot mop. GRACE MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Product Name : Waterproofing Membrane MSDS ID Number: M-85703 MSDS Date:. I’ve really changed. Painting of normal steels is technically necessary and can be used for color design of the bridge. Jetzt kaufen For Ghost Writers: Us Haunting Them editors Keith Taylor and Laura Kasischke asked twelve celebrated Michigan writers to submit new stories on one subject: ghosts. A harmonious mixture of different colors and slightly embossed surfaces can look very lively, even when the masonry areas are extensive. Peel & Seal roll roofing is 33ft. I still have a little work to.
Step 3 Install J-channel along the sides of the opening. (Quick recap: The video shows you exactly what ice & water shield looks like and where it’s installed. Over a long period, however, stone bridges, which are well designed and well built, might perhaps turn out be the cheapest, because they are long-lasting and need almost no maintenance over centuries unless attacked by extreme air pollution. MEL-ROL is a self-adhering waterproofing membrane, providing a cost-effective answer to properly waterproof foundations, vertical walls & below-grade floors. Heavy aluminum faced peel/stick flashing, roof repair and waterproofing tape. We say probably because this system is very young and many of the first SPF roofs that were installed in the late 1960s and early 1970s are still in service.
BITUTHENE® 4000 surface conditioner is water-based primer that is specifically formulated to promote adhesion by binding dust and concrete efflorescence to help provide a suitable surface for the BITUTHENE® 4000 waterproofing membrane. It's composed of an aluminized polymer film and coated with a specially formulated rubberized. Of course, sound weather-resisting stone must be chosen, and fundamental rock like granite, gneiss, porphyry, diabas or crystallized limestone are especially suitable.
The BITUTHENE® waterproofing system is the most trusted post-applied waterproofing membrane. Using Bitchathane in that case is a great tip as well. Nowhere else on your rig are you more exposed to a barrage of direct water, heat, and temperature than your RV's top covering.
Cut the house wrap at the top of the header at a 45-degree angle to create a flap. Not something I wanna smell every time I am in the car. With stone one can build bridges which are both beautiful, durable and of large span (up to 150 m). Waterproof Membrane and Conditioner is a flexible, pre-formed membrane designed for foundation walls, tunnels, earth-sheltered structures and more. I am looking at a way of applying a vertical DPM and Bitchathene has been suggested as a good way forward. Installation & Instructions 3. If the roof is properly maintained and inspected, it is not unreasonable to expect your metal roof to last 40 years or longer.
And another point to mention, Asphalt based "dampeners" smell like a freshly paved road. Roger says: Ap at 9:51 am Todd, I need to add flashing to an existing deck which has a ledger board using lag bolts attached to band board per building code. The sizes of the stone blocks and the roughness of their surfaces must be harmonized with the size of the structure, the abutments, the piers etc. This system is growing quickly in popularity in the US thanks in part to its longer-than-normal lifespan.
Protecto Wrap Company 1955 South Cherokee Street Denver, CO 80223 Toll Free:Local:Fax:Email: &0183;&32;How to use metal roof calculator Before ordering your roofing materials, it is important to accurately determine the size of your roof. When concrete can no longer resist further tensile stresses. Stone is nowadays usually confined to the surfaces, the stones being preset or fixed as facing for abutments, piers or arches.
Concrete is a construction material used in almost all construction works. Grace Waterproofing Systems March Contractor’s Handbook Grace Construction Products Sticker prints in 2Colors - pms 368 green and pms 2738 blue. Coarse embossing does not suit a small pier only 1 m thick and 5 m high, but large sized ashlars masonry is suitable for large arch bridges such as the Saalebrucke Jena or the Lahntalbrucke Limburg. The resulting collection is a satisfying mix of tales by some of the state’s most well-known and award-winning writers. If you want a roofing system that will save you enough money that it becomes profitable, continue reading about the most common roofing system lifespans.
Secure and waterproof seal 6. The maintenance required to allow your concrete roof to last its full expected life is much less than that required for a metal roof or most other systems for that matter. From new construction to renovations, general weathersealing to structural glazing, versatile and proven DOWSIL™ 795 Silicone Building Sealant does it all—delivering a durable yet highly flexible seal to a wide range of substrates. Find submittal-ready datasheets, SDS, specs, ICC-ES reports. With proper application, prevents water leaks, air infiltration, and reduces noise.
At Fortified Foundations, we can provide all these services and much more! Sticks to almost any surface 3. Yes, it might be a little more of a financial investment but the benefits vastly outweigh the cost. BITUTHENE&174; is available in a number of grades to suit your project needs.
The guy also talks about how the ice & water shield seals itself around roofing nails, which helps to distinguish it from a traditional underlayment product (e. From the USA came Tentor steel, alloyed with copper, its &39;first corrosion layer being said to protect it against further corrosion. See full list on buymbs. · Bituthene post-applied waterproofing membranes are designed for above- and belowgrade applications, as well as a wide variety of wearing surfaces above occupied space, inverted roofs, green roofs, and elevated concrete decks.
· Rolled roofing has become more and more popular in recent years. Modern steel girder bridges now hardly differ from pre-stressed concrete bridges in their external appearance - except perhaps in their color. EternaBond AlumiBond AS-2-50 Waterproofing / Roof Tape, 2 inch x 50 ft. For tensile reinforcement of concrete steel bars are embedded into it. · For many homeowners who are looking to install a metal roof on their house, cost is a huge factor. &0183;&32;Negative test does not mean you can safely socialize. Aluminum profiles are fabricated by the extrusion process which allows many varied hollow shapes to be formed, so that aluminum structures can be more elegant than those of steel.
Rubber roofing and EPDM rubber for all your DIY flat roofing projects. · Mobile homes with flat roofs aren&39;t as popular as they once were. A self-adhesive waterproof flashing tape for windows and doors. Long-lasting, versatile and easy to install, the BITUTHENE® waterproofing system gets the job done.
MEL-ROL is composed of a 56 mil thick layer of polymeric waterproofing membrane on a heavy duty, four-mil thick, cross-laminated polyethylene carrier film. Down Sizing Shops II. Special grades for application to damp surfaces or green concrete, with special primers, are also available. Works on low slope and low pitch roofs 5. &0183;&32;Re: Bituthane for shower pan? This type of protection, however, does not last in polluted air and the corrosion continues. In the video, it’s been installed on the entire roof. ) on the whole roof deck before applying slate or wood shingles.
Shop TITE-SEAL Self-Adhesive Waterproof 4-in x 33-ft Rubberized Asphalt Roll Flashing in the Roll Flashing department at Lowe's. Tremco is a manufacturer of roofing materials and services, construction sealants, glazing and gaskets, waterproofing systems, concrete admixtures and sealers, grouts and mortars, fire stopping systems and a host of custom designed products, programs and services dedicated to. I work on old houses as a carpenter-designer-builder and GC. You don&39;t need to get a professional in to apply rolled roofing to your house or shed, you. Some folks like using poly coated aluminum flashing as well. A strong, resilient roof is a home’s first line of defense when the roof deck is exposed to weather. Finish before the metal goes up. Some of the pieces are true stories written by non-believers, while others are clearly fiction and can be.
The Bituthene Systemsq. Tri-Flex 15 is a synthetic roofing underlayment coated with polypropylene on both sides and offers many benefits to traditional 15 felt. Mobile homes with flat roofs aren&39;t as popular as they once were. &0183;&32;What material provides the longest roofing system lifespan? Despite no authoritative answer on the life of the system, there are many SPF roofing systems that, when coated and maintained properly, have lasted 50+ years, giving SPF the longest roofing system lifespan of all common roofing materials. For bridges one should use that material which results in the best bridge regarding shape, technical quality, economics and compatibility with the environment. I am quite keen learn more as the building inspector is very much in favour of it.
See more results. How many blue plates would it take to cover the purple part of the floor? Bituthene 4000 Surface Conditioner is a water-based, latex surface treatment which imparts an aggressive, high tack finish to the treated substrate. Sprayed Polyurethane Foam, also referred to as SPF, probably has the longest roofing system lifespan in the study. Made in the U.
Even a roofing system that is installed correctly may not survive its full expected life due to many outside factors that impact roof life. The Aftermath: Left Hip Detail: Right Hip Detail. Today all stiffeners are placed on this inside so as to achieve a smooth outer surface allowing no accumulation of dust or dirt deposits that retain humidity and promote corrosion - the &92;&92;"Achilles heel&92;&92;" of steel structures. This is perhaps regrettable, because stiffeners on the outside enliven the plate-faces, give scale and make the girder look less heavy.
PVC membrane sits at the corner looking at us. &0183;&32;Bitchathane: Bitchathane is a protective material used in construction to full-proof roofs against snow and ice. The higher the strength, the smaller the proportional difference between the yield strength and the tensile strength, and this means that high strength steels are not as ductile as those with normal strength. Holden Caulfield was my hero for a long time. Primers and Sealants 4. Shop Home Waterproofing and Moisture Barriers at DIYHomeCenter. Tar paper, roofing felt, thermoplastic polyolefin, etc. There are some maintenance activities that must be done, there is no roofing system that doesnt require maintenance, but concrete is one of the easier ones.
The truth is, there is no downside. More Bitchathane videos. Bituthene post-applied waterproofing membranes are designed for above- and belowgrade applications, as well as a wide variety of wearing surfaces above occupied space, inverted roofs, green roofs, and elevated concrete decks. Flexible and powerful.
85 per square foot. Some of the pieces are true stories written by non-believers, while others are clearly fiction and can be funny. Very delicate looking bridges can be built by joining slender steel sections together to form a truss. WILL YOUR ROOF LAST LONG ENOUGH TO JUSTIFY ITS COST? ), or cheaper. The lifespan of a metal roof can also vary depending on the type of metal chosen, with many different metals available.
See also pictures of each design along with pros and cons etc. With the right product, you can protect the roof base from significant damage and possible repair costs. This lifespan can only be expected if the roof is maintained over the years. Allied Building Products: distributor of roofing, siding, waterproofing, interior products, windows, skylights, doors, tools & more to residential & commercial building contractors. Technical Data Sheet 5. I pick up the metal roof and hope to have it.
&0183;&32;The source of the vast majority of foundation problems is water. Specializing in EPDM roofing for RV & Flatroofs. For members under tension only, like ropes or cables, there are special steels, processed in different ways which allow us to build bold suspension or cable-stayed bridges. But I read about everything of Salinger’s that I could when I was a confused little kid and Raise High The Roof Beam Carpenters was a title I loved. For bearings and some other items, cast steel is used. Can be used on RVs and Trailer homes 4. Ae at best prices. In addition to plate girders, trusses also take full advantage of the material properties of steel.
It has excel- lent adhesion to structural concrete, masonry and wood. Long and is ideal for roofs and surfaces that are difficult to waterproof and can be used on many surfaces including: metal roofs, mobile homes, RVs or trailers, and sunroofs. The traditional building materials for bridges are stones, timber and steel, and more recently reinforced and pre-stressed concrete. ZIP System roof assembly combines our revolutionary integrated sheathing and flashing tape or liquid flashing to provide a sealed roof for protection against moisture intrusion during construction or if high winds strip the roof covering away. Jim had to leave at that point, so Tom and I put the sheathing up and then. Granite masonry was preferred for piers of bridges across the River Rhine, because it resists erosion by sandy water much better than the hardest concrete. For sealing windows, doors, and building joints. MFM Peel & Seal is made of aluminum composite foil, polymer films, and a rubberized asphalt adhe.
For bridges high strength steel is often preferred. More and more I see on other people’s jobs and on mine as well, roofers putting Ice & Water Shield (Bituthane etc. Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. According to the study, metal is expected to last somewhere between 30-45 years after installation. The choice of colors of the stone is also relevant. NYC restaurant's coronavirus solution: test.
More Bitchathane images. For special elements aluminum and its alloys and some types of plastics are used. Torch on actually has a wear strip and sand granuals and is designed as the wear membrane for a roof. There are steels which do not corrode in a normal environment (the stainless steels V2A and V4A to DIN 17440), but are so expensive that they are used only for components that are either particularly susceptible to the attacks of corrosion or that are very inaccessible. Find Waterproofer waterproofers & sealers at Lowe's today.
ComBitchathane (more correctly Bituthene) / Roofing tar paper: If you are going on an international paddling trip or simply a trip into the backcountry, throw in a roll of Bitchathane from the hardware store. Available in tubes or pails. However, its tensile strength is low, so is not preferred in areas of tensile stresses. It was thus possible to develop the light-weight &92;&92;"orthotropic plate&92;&92;" steel decks for roadways, which have now become common with an asphalt wearing course, 60 to 80 mm thick. If youre looking for a long lasting roofing system with a reasonable price tag, EPDM is a good choice. Available in White, Almond, Aluminum, and Gray 2. That's why when you have leaks and other elemental penetration in your rig, the majority of the time those incursions come from your roof.
EN139 67 ENEN 139 67 ENC M Y CM MY CY CMY K Bituthene4000_newill. Top Rated DMX 1-STEP 100 sq. Free Englert Roofing Mobile App Download: Easy access to all Englert brochures and catalogs, a color selector for both roofing and gutter colors, standing seam metal roof panel profiles, and a convenient coil calculator to assist in estimating and completing your particular project. The arches and piers have lasted for thousands of years when hard stone was used and the foundations constructed on firm ground. It is an amazing patching material when you find yourself between a rock and a nasty hike out. For building purposes, steel is fabricated in the form of plates (6 to 80mm thick) by means of rolling when red hot. Having a dull grey color, usually concrete is not preferred in construction like bridges but some of concrete bridges have turned out to be beauties, if someone knows the art.
Again welding has improved the potential for good form, because hollow sections can be fabricated and joined without the use of big gusset plates. Hether you need a roof replacement or repair, using a roof membrane is a smart decision. They differ also in their structure, texture and color or in the possibilities of surface treatment with differing texture and color. Sounds like you are talking about a material called Bitchathane (sp) I think. See full list on aboutcivil. &0183;&32;I work on old houses as a carpenter-designer-builder and GC. See full list on pmsilicone.
The cracks remain harmless called hair cracks&92;&92;", if bars are designed and place correctly. In this article we describe the most popular types of roofs for both residential houses and other types of buildings as well. It also happens to be the best material for sealing welds or make shifting repairs on cracked boats—definitely worth keeping on hand. Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. It is the premium self-adhesive waterproof flashing membrane for windows. If you still wish to remove these, you may do so by updating your browser settings. Steel bars start functioning when concrete cracks i.
Looking for concrete services, foundation repair, or basement waterproofing? WE had the trusses up by around 1:00. It&39;s composed of an aluminized polymer film and coated with a specially formulated rubberized asphalt adhesive. As of, the average price to install metal roofing is . For steel bridges, good use should be made of the technical necessity of protecting the steel with paint to improve appearance and to achieve harmonious integration of the structure within the landscape.
Buy Ghost Writers: Us Haunting Them: Contemporary Michigan Literature by Taylor, Keith, Kasischke, Laura online on Amazon. Request a Sample from MFM 2. Apply the peel-and-stick flashing to the sill first, then lap the flashing up on the jambs. Granite of a uniform grey color and sawn surface can look as dull as simple plain concrete. MFM Peel & Seal can also be used as flashing around ducts, vents, chimneys, air conditioning units, or even on gutters.
One of the longer roofing system lifespans in the study is that of EPDM (rubber) roofs. Act 4: The Sequel. Certain roofing systems do pay themselves off by saving you money on energy and maintenance expenses, but many roofing systems dont last long enough to pay themselves off. You might be wondering if using an underlayment is necessary. Roll: EternaBond AlumiBond AS-2-50, 2 inch wide x 50 foot roll. Warner Roofing & Construction Inc.
Safety Data 7. Grace Bituthene 3000 Flexible Waterproof Membrane is a high performance, cold applied, flexible, preformed waterproof membrane combining a special high performance cross-laminated, HDPE carrier film with a unique self-adhesive rubber bitumen compound. Warranty 8.
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